Tuesday, July 16, 2019
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Five-nation deal paves way for tapping Caspian riches

Five states sharing Caspian shoreline sign deal on legal status of inland body of water, agreeing to keep it exclusive.


The leaders of Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan have signed a landmark deal on the legal status of the resource-rich Caspian Sea, taking a big step towards resolving 22 years of dispute with the prospect of massive financial gains.

The five nations sharing the Caspian coastline agreed in the Kazakh city of Aktau on Sunday to treat the largest inland body of water in the world as a lake and a sea at the same time.

Defining it a lake would mean the Caspian should be divided equally amongst the five countries. But if it's a sea, then each state gets a share in proportion to the length of its shoreline.

Huge potential

The Caspian - bigger than both the North and Baltic Seas in volume - has a huge financial potential.

It is believed to have reserves of 48 billion barrels of oil - more than Nigeria or the US - and 8.3 trillion cubic metres of natural gas - roughly the same as Saudi Arabia.

The Caspian is also an important source of one of the world's most expensive delicacies - caviar. A kilogram can fetch up to $25,000.

The dispute began with the fall of the Soviet Union which had had a clearly defined Caspian border with Iran. In negotiations with post-Soviet nations, Tehran has insisted on either splitting the sea into five equal parts or jointly developing all of its resources.

None of its neighbours agreed to those proposals and three of them - Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan - effectively split the northern Caspian between each other using median lines.

Azerbaijan, however, has yet to agree on how to divide several oil and gas fields with Iran and Turkmenistan, including the Kapaz/Serdar field with reserves of about 620m barrels of oil.

The three countries have tried to develop the disputed fields while at times using warships to scare off contractors hired by other sides.

As a result, none of the disputed projects has made much progress.

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